Common Terms and Definitions



  • APTA: American Physical Therapy Association
  • ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials
  • ATIA: Assistive Technology Industry Association
  • CDC: Centers for Disease Control
  • CMS: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
  • CRRLD: Center for Rehabilitation Using Large Datasets
  • DEN: Dartmouth Entrepreneurial Network
  • FDA: Food and Drug Administration
  • MR3 Network: Medical Rehabilitation Research Resource Network
  • NCIIA: National Collegiate Inventors and Innovators Alliance
  • NCMRR: National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research
  • NCSRR: The National Center for Simulation in Rehabilitation Research
  • NICHD: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
  • NIDRR: National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research
  • NIH: National Institutes of Health
  • NSF: National Science FoundationOSHA:Occupational Safety and Health Administration
  • R24’s: Resource Related Research Projects (Centers)
  • RESNA: Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America
  • TDI: The Dartmouth Institute
  • USPTO: United States Patent and Trademark Office

Business Development

  • COGS: Cost of Goods Sold
  • HCPCS: Healthcare Common Procedures Code
  • HIPAA: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
  • IP: Intellectual Property
  • ROI: Return on Investment
  • SBIR: Small Business Innovation Research
  • STTR: Small Business Technology Transfer
  • TTO: Technology Transfer Office

Product Development

  • BOM: Bill of Materials
  • CAD: Computer Aided Design
  • CAM: Computer Aided Manufacturing
  • CMF: Color Material Finish
  • CNC: Computer Numerical Control
  • DFA: Design for Assembly
  • DFD: Design for Disassembly
  • DFM: Design for Manufacture
  • DMR: Device Master Record
  • FDM: Fused Deposition Modeling
  • FEA: Finite Element Analysis
  • FMEA: Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
  • GMP: Good Manufacturing
  • HMI: Human Machine Interface
  • ISO: International Standards Organization
  • MEMS: Micro-electromechanical Systems
  • MSDS: Material Safety Data Sheet
  • NPD: New Product Development
  • NRE: Non-recurring Engineering or Non-recurring Expense
  • OEM: Original Equipment Manufacturer
  • PMD: Product Market Definition
  • POS: Point of Sale
  • PRD: Product Requirements Definition
  • QMS: Quality Management System
  • R&D: Research and Development
  • RTV: Room Temperature Vulcanized
  • SLA: Stereolithography Apparatus
  • SLS: Selective Laser Sintering
  • SOP: Standard Operating Procedure
  • SRD: Software Requirements Definition
  • TMA: Technology and Market Assessment


  • SCI: Spinal Cord Injury
  • TBI: Traumatic Brain Injury


  • AIP: Aging in Place
  • IOT: Internet of Things